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Helpful Information

Compressors:

Condensers:

Evaporator / Superheat:

Refrigerant Temp and Safety:

Heating & Cooling Air Formulas / Driers / Temp

Electric:

Vacuum:

Refrigerant Oil:

Misc:

 

 

Types of Compressor Failures
Flood back High Compression
Flooded Start Loss of Oil
Slugging Single Phase
High Discharge Temp High/Low Voltage
Compressor Capacity Loss
Evaporator Temp ºF R-22 R-404A R-404A
Suction Line Pressure Loss
2 psi 2 psi 1 psi
% Compressor Capacity Loss
40 3.1 na na
15 5.1 3.6 1.8
-25 17.6 8.8 4.4
Horse Power Vs Tonnage
+35 evap 1hp = 1ton
+20 evap 1.5hp = 1ton
-10 evap  2hp = 1ton
-20 evap  3hp = 1ton
-30 evap  5hp = 1ton
 Compression Ratio
Semi Hermetic Recip 14:1 SP 12:1 LP
Hermetic Recip 7.5:1
Scroll high-temp 7:1 to 10:1
Scroll Refrigeration 10:1
Open 14:1
 Calculate Compression Ratio
Compression Ratio= Discharge (psia)
Suction (psia)
 Compressor low oil pressure
Liquid refrigerant entrained in the oil
High compressor wear
Bad oil pump
Coefficient of Performance Formula
Useful refrigerating effect
Net energy supplied from external source
 Compressor Superheat W/fixed Meter
A/C 10º to 35º
Refrigeration > 20º
1ph Hermetic & Semi Hermetic motors
Split Phase or Resistance Start Induction Run (RSIR)
Capacitor Start Induction Run (CSIR)
Capacitor Start Capacitor Run (CSCR)
Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC)
Recip Compressor min Discharge
R-12,134a,414B                 100 psig
R-22,407C,422B                180 psig
R-502,404A,507A,422C      180 psig
R-410A 300 psig
Recip Compressor min Discharge
R-12,134a,414B                 100 psig
R-22,407C,422B                180 psig
R-502,404A,507A,422C      180 psig
R-410A 300 psig
Flooded Condensers Refrigerant Charge
1 - 15  X 100
(90 - 0)
Condenser TD at design conditions 15 ºF
Head psi control setting 90 ºF
Minimum ambient temperature 0 ºF
Subcooling Methods
Ambient Sub-Cooling
Mechanical Sub-Cooling
Sub-Cooling Circuits and Heat Exchangers
Air Cooled Condensers
Refrigeration 750 to 1000 CFM Per Ton
Air Condition 1000 CFM Per HP
Water Requirements for Condensers
City Water 1.5 GPM Per Ton
Cooling Tower 3.0 GPM Per Ton
 Condenser Sizing
A/C Evap BTU + .33
Med Temp BTU + .50
Low Temp BTU + 2.0
< -20 BTU + 3.0
 Residential A/C Condenser Fan Motor
        Tonnage        HP
2.0 1/5
2.5 1/4
3.0 1/3
3.5 1/2
         4 to 5        3/4
 Residential Condenser TD
           Condenser SEER              TD
              6 to   7                    30
              8 to   9                     25
           10 to 11                   20
           12 to 13                   15
           14 to 16                   10
 Air Cooled Condenser TD
A/C 10º to 30º
Refrigeration 15º to 25º
 Air Cooled Condenser Subcooling
Residential < 10 SEER 10º to 15º  W/TEV
Residential > 12 SEER  6º to 12º W/TEV
Commercial A/C 8º to 15º W/TEV
Refrigeration 10º W/TEV
Air Cooled Head Pressure
Evap Temp Condenser DB Entering Temp
70 80 95
-25 / 0 90 100 115
-20/5/25 93 103 118
-15/10/30 96 106 121
-10/15/35 99 109 124
-5/20/40 102 112 127
45 105 115 130
Temp difference & relative humidity
RH% TD ºF
Over 90 8
80 to 90 10
70 to 80 15
50 to 60 20
Approximate T.D. Calculation
    TD = Condensing Unit BTU at SST
Evaporator BTU at 1o TD
A/C Superheat Calculation (non TEV)
SH = (3 x wb) (-80) (-ambient) (/2)
 Evaporator TD
A/C 30º to 35º
Refrigeration 10º to 15º
 Evaporator Superheat W/TEV
R-22 A/C 6º to 12º
R-22 High Efficiency 6º to 8º
R-410A 6º to 8º
Low Temp Refrigeration 4º to 6º
Med Temp Refrigeration 6º to 8º
TEV Element Charges
Liquid cross-charge
Liquid charge
Gas charge
Gas cross-charged
Absorption
TEV Sensing Bulb Location
3 or 9 O'clock < 7/8" Suction Line
4 or 8 O' Clock >7/8" Suction Line
Refrigerant Density Formula
lbs original ref x density of new ref
density of original refrigerant
Refrigerant Liquid Density@70 ºF,lbm/ft3
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
75.27 76.24 66.31 72.05
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
67.28 76.64 73.05 72.66
Refrigerant Critical Temp ºF
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
205 214 162 187
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
160 231 186 168
Refrigerant Normal Boiling Points ºF
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
-41.46 -14.93 -51.20 -46.53
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
-60.60 -27.16 -42.36 -50.67
400 & 500 Series Refrigerants
Must be charged as a Liquid
400 series are zeotropic
500 series are azeotropic
Refrigerant GWP
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
1750 1300 3900 1800
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
2100 1400 2500 3100
Refrigerant Safety
Always use with adequate ventilation
Flush exposed skin with warm water
Never expose to flames
Never trap liquid between valves
Never use oxygen or compressed air to
pressurize a system
Read the MSDS
Refrigerant Migration Protection
Crank Case Heater
Pump Down
Pump Out
Solenoid Drop
 Refrigerant in Cylinder
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
30 lbs 30 lbs 24 lbs 25 lbs
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
25 lbs 25 lbs 25 lbs 24 lbs
30lb Recovery Cylinder Fill Level
R-22 R-134a R-404A R-407C
25.0 lbs 25.4 lbs 22.0 lbs 23.7 lbs
R-410A R-414B R-422B R-422C
22.3 lbs 25.3 lbs 24.3 lbs 23.8 lbs
Stages of The Refrigeration Cycle
Compression of the Vapor
Desuperheating of the Vapor
Condensing
Subcooling of the Liquid
Expansion and Pressure Reduction
Evaporation
Superheating of the Vapor
Common Fraction & Decimal
1/8 0.12500 9/16 0.56250
3/16 0.18750 5/8 0.62500
1/4 0.25000 11/16 0.68750
5/16 0.32812 3/4 0.75000
3/8 0.37500 13/16 0.81250
7/16 0.43750 7/8 0.87500
1/2 0.50000 15/16 0.93750
Above sea level gauge correction
2000 ft. + 1.0
4000 ft. + 2.0
5000 ft. + 2.5
6000 ft. + 3.0
Function of a Liquid Line Drier
Moisture removal
Dirt removal
Acid removal
Sludge and varnish removal
Maximum Suction Filter Drier PSI Drop
Permanent HT/AC MT LT
22 / 404A 3 psi 2 psi 1 psi
12 / 134a 2 psi 1.5 psi 0.5 psi
Temporary HT/AC MT LT
22 / 404A 8 psi 4 psi 2 psi
12 / 134a 6 psi 3 psi 1 psi
Heating Air Formulas
BTU = CFM X 1.08 X TD
Sensible Heat Ratio = SH/TH
Cooling Air Formulas
BTU = CFM X 4.5 X Difference in Enthalpy
400 CFM per ton
Temperatures ºF
Water Boils 212
Standard Conditions 68
Water Freezes 32
Fresh Food Storage 45 to 32
Frozen Food Storage 0 to -20
Absolute 0 -460
Electric Formulas
Watts = Volts X AMPs [ P = I x E]
1 Watt = 3.414 BTU
Electrical Safety
1.0 ampere=1000 milliamps (ma)
0.5 ampere = 500 milliamps (ma)
0.1 ampere = 100 milliamps (ma)
0.05 ampere = 50 milliamps (ma)
0.001 ampere = 1 milliamps (ma)
Residential T-Stat Wire Color
Red (Rh-24V Heating) (Rc-24V Cooling)
Yellow (Y1-1st Stage Cooling)
Blue (Y2-2nd Stage Cooling)
Green or Gray (Indoor Fan)
White (1st Stage Heat)
Black (2nd Stage Heat)
Orange (Reversing Valve Cool)
Brown (Reversing Valve Heat) (24V Comm)
Electrical Safety
0.5 ma No sensation
2-10 ma Muscular contraction  
5-25 ma Painful shock  
25-50 ma Violent muscular contraction
50-100 ma Heart convulsion, death
Over 100 ma Paralysis of breathing
Vacuum
Microns "Hg Microns "Hg
100,000 25.98 4,000 29.76
50,000 27.95 2,000 29.84
20,000 29.13 1,000 29.88
15,000 29.33 500 29.90
10,000 29.53 200 29.91
8,000 29.62 150 29.92
Size of Vacuum Pump
CFM Maximum System Tonnage
1.5 2.25
3 9
5 25
7 49
10 100
Vacuum
2000 microns (29.84 ''Hg) >50 ppm H2O
1000 microns (29.88 "Hg) <10 ppm H2O
500 (29.90 "Hg) microns Industry Standard
Types of Refrigeration Oil
Mineral (MO)
Alkybenzene (AB)
Polyolester (POE)
Polyalkylene Glycol (PAG)
Polyvinyl Ether (PVE)
Refrigerant Oil Type
CFC MO
HCFC MO, AB, POE, PVE
HFC POE, PAG, PVE
HFC/HC MO, AB, POE, PVE
HFO POE, PAG, PVE
Refrigerant Pipe Support
< 3/8 every 4'
3/8 to 7/8 every  5'
1-1/8 to 1-3/8 every 7'
1-5/8 to 2-1/8 every 9'
Normal Conditions Pipe Insulation ºF
35 5 0 -20
3/8 to 1/2 1/2 to 3/4  3/4 to 1 1 to 1-1/4
Welding Temperatures
Brazing >840 ºF
Solder <840 ºF
Determining Fitting Equivalent Length
90º short 30 1/8 / .125
90º long 20 1/4 / .250
90º street 50 3/8 / .375
45º 16 1/2 / .500
45º street 26 5/8 / .625
Tee flow straight 20 3/4 / .750
Tee flow branch 60 7/8 / .875
Example  50 x .375 / 12 = 1.56 ft

     
ICOR International, Inc. • 10640 E. 59th Street • Indianapolis, IN 46236 • 800-497-6805 • Fax: 317-826-3214 • www.icorinternational.com